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Bihar Board English | Class 8th English Chapter 2 Sleep | बिहार बोर्ड अंग्रेजी | क्लास 8वीं अंग्रेजी अध्याय 2 नींद | सभी प्रश्नों के उत्तर | SM Study Point

Bihar Board English  Class 8th English Chapter 2 Sleep  बिहार बोर्ड अंग्रेजी  क्लास 8वीं अंग्रेजी अध्याय 2 नींद  सभी प्रश्नों के उत्तर
Why do we sleep? Do all persons sleep for the same amount of time? Do you ever have dreams ? If yes, narrate the dreams which you like/dislike most. Why do you think we have dreams ? 
Hint: We sleep to regain our vigour lost after our daily labour. All persons do not sleep for the same amount of time. Yes, I dream several times. I like to have dreams of playing with my friend but dislike any fearful dream. We dream to have experience of some pleasant or fearful moment.
B.1.1 Answer the following questions orally: 
Q. (a) For how long does an average adult sleep? 
Ans. An average adult sleeps seven hours and twenty minutes. 
Q. (b) What are the most common causes of sleep problems? 
Ans. Worry and depression are the most common causes of sleep problems.
Q. (c) Tell some of the factors which affect sleep. Also add some new things which are not mentioned in the passage. 
Ans. Noise, light, heat, cold, pain in illness or new surroundings like all kinds of things in the environment can affect sleep. Tension, fear, overload of work, etc. also effect sleep.
Q. (d) When do the bodily functions get slow ? 
Ans. When we sleep, the bodily functions get slow.  
B.2.1 On the basis of reading the lesson, try to complete the data given : Five stages in one sleep cycle and two alternating phases:
Bihar Board English  Class 8th English Chapter 2 Sleep  बिहार बोर्ड अंग्रेजी  क्लास 8वीं अंग्रेजी अध्याय 2 नींद  सभी प्रश्नों के उत्तर

Ans. During the
Stage 1 and 2 — Not in deep sleep
Stage 3 and 4— deep sleep, breathing and heart rate slow down, body motionless.
Stage 5 — Your brain is active and you dream.
Phase 1 — involves no dreaming; usually it occurs in the early part of the night.
Phase 2 —  Involves dreaming; it occurs mostly in the later part of the night.
B.2.2. Write the answers to the following questions in about 50 words: 
Q. 1. Do all adults require the same amount of sleep? Find out how much sleep people of different age group require.
Ans. No, all adults do not require the same amount of sleep. Babies need fourteen to eighteen hours of sleep. Children at the age of 5 to 12 years need 10 to 11 hours of sleep. Average adult sleeps for seven hours and twenty minutes. About 8% adults need 5 hours or less of sleep, and 4% need ten hours or more of sleep. Old persons need less than they did when young; they often take nap during the day.
Q. 2. Why does the author not favour sleeping pills? Pick out the line that shows that the author does not favour them. 
Ans. Taking sleeping pills is harmful for health. It forms a bad habit which causes diseases. It makes people addicted to it. It also does not cure the disorder of sleeplessness called insomnia. So, the author does not favour it:
"Many people become addicted to sleeping pills but sleeping pills do not cure the disorder of sleeplessness called insomina."
Q. 3. Have you ever felt sleep problems in your life? Discuss in pairs and write down the possible causes of sleep problems. 
Rohan: Have you ever felt sleep problems in your life, Rohit? 
Rohit: Yes, many a time I have felt sleep problems.
Rohan : Why did you suffer from sleep problems?
Rohit: Whenever I quarrel with any of my friend. I feel difficulty to sleep at night. I miss many hours in the bed.
Rohan: I, too, feel sleep problems sometimes, but my reason is some different. When I study for late hours at night, I feel difficulty to sleep latter on.
Q. 4. What are the consequences of regularly missing sleep for long periods of time?
Ans. If we miss sleep for long periods, it harms us in different ways: 
(i) Sometimes, regular sleeplessness turns into a disease called insomnia.
(ii) Sometimes the sleeplessness causes many other diseases, like weakness, mental disorders, etc.
(iii) Sleeplessness also harms the development of our body and its systems.
C.1. There are six words connected with sleep. Find them out from the grid. You may use the clues below.
Bihar Board English | Class 8th English Chapter 2 Sleep | बिहार बोर्ड अंग्रेजी | क्लास 8वीं अंग्रेजी अध्याय 2 नींद | सभी प्रश्नों के उत्तर
1. happening by turns, first one and then the other (para 3) 
2. old people (para 2).
3. state of being sad or gloomy (para 8)
4. weakened (para 7)
5. abnormal (para 7)
6. used to (para 5) 
Note: Pick out only those words that have been used in the text. 
C.2. Read the following sentences carefully.
(a) The elderly need less sleep.
(b) When we sleep, the bodily functions slow down.
(c) You soon being to behave strangely.
In the above sentences, words with ly' have different functions to perform. In sentence 
(a) 'the elderly' means the elderly people and it functions as a noun. In sentence 
(b) the word 'bodily' is describing the 'functions' which is a noun. Therefore, bodily is an adjective and that's why in this case it comes before the noun. In sentence 
(c) the word *strangely' clearly qualifies the verb 'behave' and therefore it functions as ar adverb. Notice that 'y' of 'body' is changed to 'i' in 'bodily'.
Q. (i) Now, try to find out what different functions the '-ly' words perform in the sentences given below :
(a) The easterly winds bring rain.
(b) He visits us rarely nowadays.
(c) The lion was vastly amused.
(d) This restaurant provides us homely meals.
(e) His monthly salary is very high.
(f) The student has solved this sum correctly.
(g) The children danced happily.
(h) He read the book thoroughly. 
(a) easterly-adjective
(b) rarely-adverb. 
(c) vastly-adverb
(d) homely-adjective 
(e) monthly-adjective
(f) correctly-adverb 
(g) happily-adverb
(h) thoroughly-adverb
Q. (ii) Pick out words from the text to which '-ly' can be added to form new words.
Ans. body, repeated, deep, active, night, slow, regular, fixed, happy. day, common, disorder.  
D.1. Simple, Compound and Complex sentences.
Read the following sentences.
(a) A lot of people have serious sleep problems.
(b) You lose the ability to concentrate and your judgement gets impaired.
(c) When we sleep, the bodily functions slow down.
Here in sentence (a), there is only one subject (a lot of people) and a finite verb (have); therefore, it is a simple sentence. On the other hand, the sentence (b) and (c) have more than one subject and finite verb, so they are either compound or complex sentences.
In sentence (b) we see that the two simple sentences (i) You lose the ability to concentrate and (ii) your judgement gets impaired are linked with and', a co-ordinating conjunction. And hence it is a compound sentence. Other coordinating conjunctions are: but, or.
A compound sentence has two or more independent clauses that are generally linked with co-ordinating conjunction like 'and', 'but', 'or'. The important thing to remember is that the two clauses that we join together should be either similar or contrasting.
Sentence (c) has one main clause, 'the bodily functions slow down' and one subordinate clause 'we sleep'. Therefore, it is a complex sentence, as both the clauses are joined with a subordinate conjunction 'when'. Other subordinating conjunctions are:
Q. Read the text again and find one example of each type of sentence. In the compound and complex sentences, encircle the clauses and name them. e.g. independent clauses, subordinating clauses, coordinating clauses.
Ans. Simple sentence-There are five stages in one sleep cycle. 
Compound sentence-During sleep our muscles, bones and skin can grow. Independent clauses-linked with co-ordinating conjunction 'and'.
Complex sentence-If you wake up during this phase. 
Subordinating clause-You will almost certainly remember your dreams.
D.1.1. Read the following extract and identify the types of sentences : simple, compound and complex.
The Rose Ringed Parakeet
One of the most beautiful birds is the rose-ringed parakeet. Parakeets are brilliant green. When perched on a tree they are hardly visible as their colour mingles with the green of the leaves.
The male birds has a rose-pink and black collar round his neck. Both the male and female birds have large brilliant red bills.
These birds eat fruit and grain, and they cause much destruction. A large part of the fruit goes waste as the birds leave it half-eaten.
The mother bird lays four to six almost white round eggs, usually between February and April. She places them in hole in a tree or wall. Both parents look after the eggs.
Ans. Simple sentence.
Q. Work in groups of four and talk about your sleeping habits. You can ask and answer the following questions :
(a) How many hours of sleep do you take normally ?
(b) Do you fall asleep as soon as you go to bed ?
(c) Do you have any sort of sleep problems? If yes, what are they? 
(d) When do you find it difficult to sleep?
(e) What happens to you when you keep awake for a longer period of time ?
(f). Now one student from each group will share the views of the group with the rest of the class.
Group A: How many hours of sleep do you take normally ?
Group C: We, normally, take seven hours of sleep.
Group B: Do you all fall asleep as soon as you go to bed? 
Group A: All of us do not fall asleep as soon as go to bed. 
Group D: Do you have any sort of sleep problem? If yes, what are they?
Group B: We have not any sleep problem.
Group A: When do you find it difficult to sleep?
Group D: When there is any uproar, we feel difficulty to sleep.
Group C: What happens to you when you keep awake for a longer period of time ?.
Group D: When we keep awake for a longer period of time we feel irritation uneasiness.
Group C: What is the regular time for your sleep? 
Group B: We, normally, sleep at 9 o'clock at night and awake at 5 o'clock in the morning.
[Students can develop this sort of talking in the class during leisure]  
Q. Write a short paragraph in 100 words on "The Importance of Sound Sleep".
Before you get down to write your final paragraph you must jot down your points and organise your points in the correct sequence. Prepare a rough draft and check whether all the points that you had noted down have been included and are organised in their proper order. You must also check the spellings of words, punctuation marks and capital letters.
Ans. The Importance of Sound Sleep
Essential biological need of a living being. Every living being must have a sound sleep to keep its metabolic system up. If we do not sleep according to our need, we have a face many problems. We may fall ill, cannot be creative and think new idea, fight sickness. Sound sleep gives us vigour and mental comfort. It enables us to keep up our memory and makes us social. Without sound sleep one cannot get the satisfaction of sleep. It is the sound sleep which decided the duration of sleep of a living being. 
Q. Translate the first two paragraphs into Hindi or your mother tongue.
Hint: See the 'Detailed Study' of the lesson on pages 6 and 7. 
Q. 1. Is sleep essential for a living being ?
Ans. Yes, sleep is essential for every living being. 
Q. 2. Why do we need sleep?
Ans. We need sleep to stay healthy and fight sickness. 
Q. 3. Why does our brain need sleep?
Ans. Our brain needs sleep for it helps to remember what we learn and also helps it to pay attention and concentrate.
Q. 4. What is REM? What happens during the REM? 
Ans. REM means Rapid Eye Movement during the REM our eyes move rapidly under our eyelids and we see dream.
Q. 5. When do we dream of night?
Ans. Normally, we dream in the later part of the night.
Q. 6. When does our body temperature rise and fall ? 
Ans. Our body keeps to a regular 24 hour cycle during which body temperature rises and falls at fixed times. Normally it is lowest in the middle of the night and highest in the afternoon. 
Q. 7. What are the benefits of good or enough sleep? 
Ans. Good or enough sleep enables us to do all physical or social work efficiently. We can pay attention to our work, we can stay healthy and behave normally to all.
Q. 8. What is the harm of less of sleep? 
Ans. If we don't get enough sleep regularly it makes weak both mentally and physically. We forget our work, feel trouble in making decisions and fee irritation and less patience.

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